THE UNDAUNTED II.

Piet J. Kroonenberg, Amsterdam and WOSM, Geneva.

-II

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L I T H U A N I A - L I E T U V A.

In the beginning the area presently known as Lithuania was inhabited by three Indo-European tribes : the Zjemates, the Jutvings and the Auksjitats. The terrain consisting of marshes, rivers and covered by large, dense forests protected them well against all intruders and they managed to keep them out. Yet the Vikings, in their famous longboats, were a different threat. They raided the coastlines, attacked the settlements and forced the tribes to unite to fend them off. Attacks by the Mongols and the Tartars were also repulsed and the tribes were not so much influenced by the various migrations of nations from the east. Yet it was not until much later that the Lithuanian nation came to being when the region was threatened by some new enemies : the Teutonic Knights, also known as the German Order, the Fratres Militae (Armed Brotherhood) or - more enlightening - the Knights of the Sword. The members were mainly the second or third sons or the bastards of German Knights and other gentry. They were well aware that if their fathers died they would not inherit anything. Sometimes their dads just gave them a horse, an armour and a sword and sent them packing to carve their own way in life and to riches. These "knight errants", as they were called, sought and found adventure.
At long last found an excuse to cover their
Activities when they had embraced Christianity . They united, formed asrmed units and they decided to bring Christianity to peagan Eastern Europe. Sword in the hand so as to
be more convincing. To bring their blessings they first moved north eastwards into the region presently known as the Baltic States. The above tribes were lucky again and protected as they also were by the difficult terrain. It came, however, to many battles with the knights but they managed to keep them out. Once more the tribes united and a leader was chosen, known as Vitenes (1296-1315). He consolidated his territory but his brother and successor Gediminas (1316-1341) even managed to enlarge the country, conquering a fair part of West and South Russia.
For political reasons the Lithuanian leaders stuck to their own Gods. Converting to Roman Catholicism would estrange their Orthodox Russian subjects whereas converting to the Russian Orthodox Church would certainly not end the Teutonic Knights' Crusades. In 1320 Gediminas founded a new capital Vilnjoes or Vilnius. Meanwhile Moskovia, after annexations and conquests of surrounding areas, known as Russia, grew stronger and stronger, and the Lithuanians had to defend themselves on two fronts to fend off the Russians and the Teutonic Knights. Jogaila or Jagello (1377-1434) found a solution. He married Princess Jadwiga, heir to the Polish throne, converted to Roman Catholicism and brought Lithuania under the Polish Crown. As Polish and Lithuanian King he extended his realm until it streched from the Baltic mto the Black Sea covering most of Poland, Belarus, Ukraine and Lithuania.
In later years the Poles got the overhand and the inhabitants of original Lithuania demanded more independence. A treaty of Lublin (1557) was signed which granted them limited self-determination.
In the centuries thereafter the Polish and Lithuanian neighbours got greedier and greedier. Prussia, Austria and Russia divived Poland three times and in 1795 Poland and Lithuania were wiped of the maps and did no longer exist as independent countries. A small part of Lithuania was taken by the Prussians but the rest by the Russians. A situation to last until 1918.
During these 120 years of foreign oppression there were several uprisings, e.g. in 1812 when selfmade Emperor Napoleon I of France's armies not only marched to Moscow but - through the Baltic provinces - were also on their way to St Petersburg. During the battle of Riga to be stopped and forced to retreat by "King Winter", and the Russian Army, supported the British Royal Navy. There were further uprisings in 1831, 1863 and 1905. But all were put down by the Russians. Each time - as a punishment - thousands were deported to a certain death in far away Siberia.
"Come What May, Lithuania will never perish" was an old saying and the Lithuanians were nuturing the dream of their freedom and independence which one day they expected to regain.

During the first week of August 1914 the Great War, later known as World War I, began. The German Imperial High Command intended to crush France in a quick attack through Belgium before Great Britain would be able to deploy its forces on the Continent. Dedicating their potential and energy to this plan - which failed in 1914 but succeeded in 1940 - the Germans more or less neglected their Eastern Front with Russia. The Russian Armies initially scored some successes and penetrated East Prussia and the German zone of Poland. But a little later the Germans took the initiative. The Russians were forced to withdraw and large parts of Russian Poland and Russia were taken by German and Austrian forces. Lithuania, the nearest to East Prussia, was occupied by the Germans. But before they actually arrived the Russian military had deemed it necessary to evacuate a part of the civil population to the Russian hinterland and a fair portion of them had to settle in the city of Woronez, about which more later.

The war did not go well for the Russians and amongst others their Baltic provinces, Lithuania Latvia and Estonia were lost to the German Empire. So after more than 120 years of Russian regime the population had to adjust to the new German occupation authorities, which ofcourse was a difference though it was doubtful whether it was also an improvement. Had Emperial Germany won the war, it no doubt would have annexed the Baltic states and would not have granted them independence. But we are never to know.

On February 27th, 1917 the Russian revolution began. The centuries' old Empire of the Czars came to an end and was replaced by a democratic republic led by Kerenski, a social democrat.
But the Russians and the other peoples belonging to the vast empire and for ages having lived under a dictatorship, never got a real change of getting to know or used to real democracy - a system they had never known. In autumn 1917 a Bolshevik coup d'etat ended the promising and hopeful beginning. This coup d'etat - which was later dished up as the "Glorious October Revolution which led the working classes to the Workers' Paradise" - nipped democracy and liberty in the bud, when the Soviets seized power and took over government. A civil war began between the Red Army and the White Armies. The latter were divided in those fighting for the Czar's restoration to the throne and those defending the New Democratic Republic.

The war between Russia and Germany ended with Peace negotiations between the
communists and the Germans at Brest Litovsk. The German demands were so harsh that the Bolsheviks at first refused to accept them (February 1918) whereupon the German armies advanced and occupied most of Western Russia. Which caused the Bolshevists to sign the treaty in March. To the German victors they had to give up Russian Poland, the Ukraine, various other regions and the Baltic provinces. But when on November 11th, at its 11th hours, 1918 the Germans in turn had to surrender to the Western Allies and the war ended, this Brest Litovsk treaty was annulled.

The situation changed drasticly. Was rather chaotic. The German soldiers in occupation of the Baltic provinces were fed up with the war, glad that it was over, and most of them wanted to go home. So the retreat began and the Bolshevik Red Army, which was strongest in the north, made ready to advance and re-occupy the territory the Germans withdrew from. But the populations of the Baltic provinces had different ideas.They considered this to be a nice opportunity to at long last regain their freedom and independence. They armed themselves and were reinforced by some, small German military units (Freikorps) which did not accept the German surrender, stayed put and carried on fighting the Russians.
In the old Lithuanian capital Vilnius/Vilnjoes a National Council (Taryba) met and chaired by Antonas Smetona took charge of the uprising. On February 16th, 1918 proclaiming the restoration of Lithuanian Independence and on November 11th, 1918 (the Day the Great War or World War One ended) the first cabinet of the independent Republic of Lithuania was installed. Lithuania was free again after 122 long years of foreign oppression.

Independent but not yet really free and still at war. The new Bolshevik regime did not intend to permit the Baltic States to secede. A bitter armed struggle followed during which thousands gave their lives for their country's new freedom. At last, July 12th, 1920, a treaty was signed. The Soviet Union recognised the sovereignty of the free and independent Baltic States including Lithuania. So at last Lithuania had obtained its freedom and independence.
But there were also other outside influences. The Victorious Allies changed the map of Europe and Lithuania lost its old capital Vilnjoes/Vilnius to the new Polish Republic. As a result of the developments in the previous centuries, the city's population was mixed, Poles and Lithuanians. On the other hand the new League of Nations based in Geneva (the predecessor of the United Nations founded 1944) took under its supervision the area between German East Prussia and Lithuania, (in German: the Memelgebiet, in Lituanian: Kalypedu) and placed it under Lithuanian sovereignty.
The people, having paid a high price but free at last, under its first President Antonas Smetona faced a new future, which turned out to be rather varied.

In the new Lithuania scouting was to prosper.

S C O U T I N G.

In the years during which Lithania and Poland had been one country and later when Eas Poland and Lithuania belonged to the Russian Empire it so happened that the populations mixed and lived together peacefully in towns and villages. Many Lithuanians studied at universities in the Russian zone of divided Poland.
Scouting came to occupied Poland as early as 1911 and in the Russian zone was founded the Polska Organizacja Skautowa. (1) Lithuanian students of the Polish universities joined the first Polish groups but no such units were founded in Lithuania at the time.
When World War One had begun and part of the Lithuanian population had been evacuated to the Russian hinterland - as mentioned - many settled in the city of Woronezh. Schools were opened, one of them having as its head teacher Petras Jurgela. He founded the first Lithuanian Scout Troop ever, be it not on Lithuanian soil. But meanwhile scouting was also brought to the German occupied part of Lithuania and troops sprung up. But never officially as the German occupation banned and surpressed all manifestations of Lithuanian nationalism, and the scout troops were considered as such. Hence these new troops operated illegally.
But when the War of Independence had begun the scouts - boys and girls - donned their uniforms and came out in the open. Despite the war scouting flourished. There were boys only and girls only troops but also some mixed ones. On November 1st, 1918 the existing troops united in the LSS - Lietuviu Skautu Sajunga or the Lithuanian Scouting Association which was founded that very day. As in most countries, the Scout Law and Promise as well as the rules were strict translations of those laid down by Baden-Powell. The new movement spread all over Lithuania and became very popular. During the War of Independence the scouts rendered their services but many of the older ones, leader's age, served in the Liberation Forces. The War over and the country independent scouting was able to develop properly.

It was remarkable that in Luthiania - as in many other East European countries - very high standards were reached in scouting, so much so that the foreign visitors, mainly British guide and scoutleaders, were very impressed indeed. On the other hand there were few countries where the scout and guide organizations suffered so many victims for the cause of scouting, as history will reveal.
Sea scouting began in 1922 and in their small boats the Lithuanians used to sail all over the Baltic calling at ports in Finland, Sweden. Poland, Estonia, Latvia and even Denmark and until 1933 also Germany. When - first in Britain - cub scouting and rover scouting were introduced, the Lithuanians did the same and later still they were one of the first countries to introduce air scouting.
The LSS grew and soon was the largest and most popular youth organization in Lithuania fully supported by the government.

When in Paris (1922) the 2nd International (now World) Conference was held and the International (now World) Movement was founded, the movements represented were all registered and recognized as members, and were since considered to belong to the "Founder Members". For reasons unknown the LSS was not present at the conference and consequently did not belong to the "Founder Members". Yet it was registered as a member by the Boy Scouts International Bureau on June 1st, 1924. A recognition which enabled 20 Lithuanian scouts (boys and girls), under the leadership of Scoutmaster V. Senbergas, to participate in the 2nd World Jamboree at Ermelunden near Copenhagen (1924).

In Scouting's early days it was not uncommon that in various countries Heads-of-State, be they Kings or Queens or Presidents, took a great interest in scouting and guiding - which they deemed very important for the development of youth. Some even consented in they themselves - or other members of the family - becoming patrons or patronesses of the national movements. (2) But on April 23rd, 1925 (St George's Day) the Lithuanian President was installed as LSS's Chief Scout, which was exceptional.

In 1927 - to commemorate LSS's 10th anniversary a First National Camp (Stovykla) was held near Panemun on the banks of the river Nrmunas. As from that year onwards the national broadcasting system permitted LLS to put on the air a daily half hour radio program which was very popular and lasted until the communist take over in 1940. National and international scouting and guiding news was given and reports concerning such international scouting events as the 3rd World Jamboree (1929) at Arrowepark near Birkenhead in England, the 4th (1933) at Godolo in Hungary and the 5th (1937) at Vogelenzang in the Netherlands. To the latter travelled 25 Lithuanian scouts who pitched their tents in Subcamp 7.
In 1937 in order to to celebrate the 20th anniversary of the country's Independence and the LSS the latter once again organized a National Camp at the favourite site of Panemun

G U I D I N G.
As mentioned earlier the Lietuviu Skautu Sajunga was originally a mixed organization with boys and girls only groups but also mixed ones. Under the influence of the Girl Guides International Bureau in London the situation changed. The mixed groups disappeared when after mutual
agreement the Girl Scouts separated from the LSS, and continued as an independent
movement named Lietuviu Skausiu Skyrius or - Lithaunian Girl Scouts Sisterhood.

The G.G. International Bureau used to organize several International Conference, the 5th one of which was held at Parad/Hungary in May 1928. The Lietuviu Skausiu Skyrius was invited to attend. As one of the 26 participating Guide Movements.(3) thus belonging to the "Founder Members" of the WAGGGS - the World Association of the Girl Guides and Girl Scouts.
During this conference is was also decided that from that conference onwards each
recognized and registered, associated or full member movement would have to send a Biennial Report to the WAGGGS International Bureau. In their first report - covering July 1st, 1928 - June 30th, 1930 the Lithuanian leadership reported a total membership of 1334 (4),
and :
"This year we have reached the point when the girls have begun to work alone instead of with the Boy Scouts. We have done much work looking for Guiders and so we prepared courses for them in each region, and we also had a training camp for the Guiders which lasted fourteen days."

The 2nd report ending June 30th, 1932 mentions a total membership of 3552, whereas the 3rd report, ending June 30th 1933 indicates that the movement's name has been changed into Lietuvos Skauciu Seserija which is however also translated as Lithuania's Girl Scouts Sisterhood. Its membership is said to be 4010, an increase of no less than 458. (4). But this report, written in German, also paid a tribute to the great event, the highlight of the year, the visit by the World Chief Scout, the World Chief Guide, their family and the more than 600 British Guide leaders and Scout leaders. In summer 1933, the two British cruise ships, used for this Baltic tour, also called at the Lithuanian port. The British guests visited the National Camp (Stovykla) at Palanga where Baden-Powell signed a huge 4 to 5 tons stone (5) with his initials, together with Chief Scout and President Antanas Smetona. This British invasion drew the attention and greatly enlarged the two movements' popularity. Radio and press dedicated much time and space.

From the Fourth Biennial Report July 1st, 1934 - June 30th, 1936. Total membership 6608. (4)
"The years 1934 and 1935 were years of considerable development. The
organization gained about 3000 new members (total 6608) and great strides were made in the training of leaders. A permanent training school for leaders wasestablished in 1934. Cooperation began with the close neighbours, the Latvian Girl Guides in 1933. The results have been most saticfactory and resulted in very friendly relations. In summer 1934 a joint camp for Guiders of both movements was held in Lithuania and in 1935 in Latvia. Both were very successful and the Guiders
even studied each other languages.
In 1935 the LLS changed its constitution giving the Girl Scouts the complete independence they had long been striving for and a National Guide Council was created which formulated a constitution which came into force on March 1st, 1936."

In its 5th Biennial Report - covering July 1st, 1936 - June 30th, 1938, Lietuvus Skaucia Seserijas told WAGGGS in London that its membership was now 6920 and
"In April 1937 a new branch was added - the Girl Sea Scouts - which proved very successful.
The relationship with the Sister Scouts in Latvia became even more cordial and in 1937 closer relationship with the Estonian Guide Association was also established. In October 1937 the Baltic Guides' Association was formed and a constitution adopted.
In 1936 12 scouts went to the Danish Jubilee Jamboree, 10 to Latvia, three to the Estonian National Camp. In 1937 one to Camp Andree in the USA. One Guider attended the Ranger Conference at Adelboden en two attended the courses for leaders at Foxlease.
In July, 1938 a large national camp was organized to celebrate the 20th anniversary of Lithuanian independence and of Scouting. Sisters movement were invited to send participants."

Apparently there was never a Sixth Biennial Report which ought to have been sent after June 30th, 1940. The general political situation in Europe had changed so much and the tensions were so high that it may never have been written.


TENSIONS.
Lithuania, as the other Baltic States, lived between hammer and anvil. There was always the mighty Soviet Union which never forgot that Lithuania had once been one of Russia's Baltic Provinces which it had been compelled to give independence but which it would rather have kept so as to control the Baltic coasts. This desire grew when in 1933 Germany fell in the hands of Hitler's Nazi regime which made no secret of it that it had two main enemies : the Jews and the Bosheviks or Communists, that is the Soviet Union. On the other hand there was a small Lithuanian communist party which aimed at Lithuania becoming a part of the Soviet Union. But the fascists and the nazis also had their Lithuanian followers (The Iron Wolf Movement) and in particular the latter's influence grew in German speaking minority. Some of them, though Lithuanian citizens, considered themselves as being Germans, an opinion shared and propogated by Nazi Germany. So after 1933 Lithuania was in between the Nazi Hammer and the Soviet Anvil. Which made life very uncertain, exciting but also stressful .

Adolf Hitler managed to manipulate his direct neighbours and the West European Democracies. He had it his way when he was dealing with Austria and Czechoslovakia. Then his greedy eye fell upon Poland. Though he never expected France and England to go to war over Poland, he nevertheless wanted to cover his back and so - to the world's utter surprise - he made his move towards the Soviet Union. From State and Humanity's Enemy Number One, the Soviet Union was suddenly declared to be a friend and a pact in that respect was signed on August 23rd, 1939 added to which was the infamous top secret Ribbentrop/Molotov Protocol

dividing Eastern Europe in a Nazi and a Soviet sphere of influence. The Baltic States were allotted to the Soviet Union be it that in 1939 Lithuania had to hand over Klaipede/Kalypedu or the Memel, bordering on East Preussia, with its mixed German/Lithuanian population to Nazi Germany. The first to be expelled were the Jews.

When Word War Two had begun with the Nazi attack on Poland in September 1939 the Baltic States detected a concentration of the Red Army near their borders. The countries were put under enormous pressure. On May 10th, 1940 Nazi-Germany began its offensive in Western Europe overrunning the Netherlands and Belgium, forcing France to its knees and compelling the British to retreat from Dunkirk.
On June 14th, 1940 the Lithuanian government received another Soviet ultimatum demanding garrisons and naval basis for the Soviet Forces. Even before the ultimatum's deadline had expired the Red Army marched in and 300.000 Soviet soldiers occupied the country. The democraticly chosen government was pressed to resign, the Luthuanian communists formed a new one which humbly requested Moscow to kindly incorporate Lithuania in the USSR. Ofcourse this request was not denied and on August 3rd 1940 the country was renamed Lietuvos Sotsialisticheskika Republik. As a kind of a "welcome home" present the city of Vilnius/Vilnjoes and the surrounding region was taken away from Poland and restored to Lithuania to be its capital once more. Whether the Lithuanians - under the circumstances - were very pleased with this gift is not known.
But this was the end of independent Lithuania. From now on a puppet government had to follow and execute Moscow's strict orders. The sun had set for another 55 years.

THE REDS - THE BROWNS - THE REDS.
Some had seen it coming and were trying to go abroad. Antonus Smetona, the country's president but also the LSS' Chief Scout, was one of those who made it and he found refuge in the USA. He remained active for the liberation of his country, had only just settled in Cleveland/Ohio when on January 8th, 1944 he was assassinated. A mysterious crime that was never solved by the otherwise very efficient American police and the FBI, but Moscow's arm was a long one.

The Red Terror began immediately. All those belonging to the opposition and in particular those having leaders' capacities were arrested as they were deemed a danger to the new regime. Scouting and Guiding also had the bill presented and most of the scout and guide leaders were put in jail.
Yet is was not until the 9th of October, 1940 that in the newspaper TARYBU was published an official government announcement stating that the LSS - " a dangerous instrument in the hands of the capitalist enemies of the working classes" and "misleading youth" - was disbanded. All further scouting and guiding activities were banned and offenders would be severely punished. All possessions were confiscated and placed at the disposal of the communist State Youth (the Komosols and the Pioneers) units of which were formed at every school and membership of which was to be compulsory. The terror hit hard and put fear in the hearts.
No one was to be trusted anymore. Despite all this scouts and guides, mainly in isolated patrols, still met but a large number of arrests were made as traitors never sleep.

The Nazi-Soviet friendship did not last long. On June 22nd, 1941, the Nazis launched their Operation Barbarossa, attacking the Soviet Union. Its leadership had ignored the warnings received from the British Prime Minister and War Leader Winston Churchill and was not at all prepared when the German offensive began. German tanks sliced through the defences like a hot knive through butter.
There were three important German spearheads. One in the south aimed at taking the fertile Ukraine, one in the centre aimed at taking Moscow and eliminating the Soviet leadership and one heading north from East Prussia, through the Baltic States in order to conquer Leningrad (now St Petersburg again.). It was the latter spearhead that the Lithuanians got to see. The Germans crossing into the country from East Prussia and Memel met little Soviet resistance. The Red Army had had too little time to organize the defences. Also they were harrassed by the Lithuanians who had risen and armed themselves. Almost everywhere the old Lithuanian national colours (horizontal: Yellow-Green-Red) were hoisted again and the people rejoiced. It is typical that almost all regimes, based upon terror, more or less pay less attention to their defences than they do to their victims. Despite the massive difficulties the retreating Red Army had to deal with, the terror regime found means to evacuate the prisons and concentration camps. The inmates were forced to walk for days and miles to other prisons. Little rest and little food to maintain their strength and health. Scouts and guides and their leaders had been mainly concentrated in the Kaunas prison. When the Germans approached the inmates were marched off to the Russian hinterland. They had to walk from Kaunus via Minsk to Smolensk, a long distance without sufficient food and drink and little rest or decent shelter. After so many months in prison their general condition was far from perfect and many collapsed and died or, when no longer able to stand on their feet, were executed on the spot. Chief Scout Sarauskus was one of them. He was an elderly man and on the 3rd day he collapsed. Other, younger scoutleaders dragged him along and by the end of the day they reached the Corvene prison. The march came to a halt, the prisonners were given some food and some drink and were allowed to rest. Suddenly the guards separated some female and male leaders, including Sarauskus, from the main group. They were led into the surrounding woods and were executed. Their bodies were than crushed by tanks and mixed with the mud. Other prominent or less prominent scout and guide leaders were executed by means of hanging.
But not only those who were prisonners were killed. In Rainiai 18 guides and scouts, aged 17 - 35, were murdered. And such things happened everywhere and thousands of Lithuanians were liquidated on the spot or deported. .

No wonder that when they were able to obtain arms they turned on the retreating Red Army soldiers and killed as many as they could. No wonder that in the period between the Red Army's retreat and the Germans' arrival the Lithuanians took charge and hunted traitors and Soviet agents that had not been able to get away.

No wonder too that the Lithaunians greeted the Germans as liberators expecting them to restore the country's independence.

No wonder that most of them were very disappointed when they found that this was not a liberation. The only difference was the colour of the occupation, Nazi Brown in exchange for Soviet Red.

The Lithuanians who had armed themselves and attacked the Red Army on retreat, where disarmed by the Nazis and arrested. The provisional government that had taken over from the Soviet one, was disbanded by the Nazis on August 5th, 1941 and all leading personalities were taken into custody and deported to Germany to be locked up in a contration camp. The Nazis, like the Soviets, had no need for independently thinking people. The old Lithuanian national flag, yellow-green-red, that had been hoisted again, had to be removed once more. The left-overs of the LSS, mainly young boys and girls, that had reemerged, were told to stop all activities and to remove their uniforms. The Nazis did not at all want a liberated and revived Lithuania. A Nazi administration took over in the Baltic States which became a Reichskommisariat led by a Nazi Reichskommissar. The intention being that, when the war would have been won, the countries would become part of the Great Thousand Years' Reich.

Some of the armed Lithuanians managed to escape and to hide in the dense forests. They formed partisan units which tried to keep the Nazis away from them. There were armed clashes which led to German reprisals and the Nazis committed many war-crimes. The Lithunians were caught between two evil systems. Yet each system knew its Lithuanian collaborators. Some, despite everything, joined the Nazis with enthusiasm. When the war lasted longer than the Nazi leaders had expected and millions of Germans had fallen on the different fronts, new recruits were needed and sought elsewhere in the occupied territories. The cunning Nazis declared their war on the Soviet Union as to be in reality a Crusade against inhuman communism in order to save the western civilisation and christianity. All over Europe devote Raman Catholic boys, who had always been told how bad communism was, fell for it and joined the SS. In the Baltic States, blinded by their hatred for the Soviets and not understanding the game the Nazis were playing, many joined up, willing to fight on the fronts but also to assist in the oppression of their own compatriots. Dressed in SS uniforms they were also involved in the extermination of their Lithuanian Jewish fellow citizens and many of other nationalities.
When the Bolsjeviks had taken over and disbanded the Lithuanian Defence Force, removing and killing the officers, the other ranks had been forced to join the Red Army. It is understandable that, if they had a choice, they did not want to fight and certainly not to die for what they considered to be their oppressors. So if the possibility was there, they surrendered to the Germans. But it was no change for the better. With thousands of other Soviet soldiers they were put into German extermination camps to starve to death.
Until the Nazis discovered their potential and started recruiting them. Given the choice
between slow starvation and hard labour in a German camp or donning the German uniform some did so, be it mostly halfheartedly. To their alarm and fright it was an SS one. As for the nationalism, that they wanted to keep down, the Nazis also changed their tune and permitted the Lithuanians SSmen to have on their sleeves a badge in the national colours :Yellow-Green-Red. As if they were fighting for a free Lithuania !

Pro or anti the Nazi occupation, collaborating or resisting, all Lithuanians feared the Red Army's return. . And the tide had certainly turned. Nazi Germany "Victorious On All Fronts" was harassed on all fronts and retreated. The Red Army had recovered from the blows and had been reinforced and reequipped by its own industry behind the Ural mountains and by the Western Allies

In August/September 1944 the Germans were slowly forced out of Lithuania by the advancing Red Army. It was a slow process but unstoppable. Thousands of Lithuanians, whether pro or anti Nazis did not wish to stay and wait until the Red Army would return. A new switch of masters, and as experience taught, there was hardly a difference between them. Some went to the coast and tried to get on board anything that would float and take them to Sweden. Others managed to get on board German vessels and disembarked in some German port unless they were torpedoed by a Russian submarine. But most took the roads down south and went the long and hard way via East Prussia and Poland into Germany. Two enemies hit them, the advanging Red Army and King Winter. Mixing with the Germans escaping from East Prussia, thousands tracked along on the frozen coastal waters and many perished when being straffed and bombed by Russian fighter planes. Those who made it got involved in the bombardements on the German cities. Trying to keep ahead of the Red Army they went as far west as possible until they met the advancing Western Allies.

Those who stayed put saw the Soviets returning and were subjected to the new terror when the communists took over again. Almost everybody was considered to have been collaborating with the Nazis and thousands were arrested and deported to far away places. Only a very small percentage of those survived and was able to return home when in 1953, after Stalin's death, the regime went more lenient. The deportees places were filled by Russian and Ukrainians who were forced to settle in Lithuania to keep the economy going.

The above mentioned partisans in the forests, first harassed the retreating Germans and later the advancing Red Army and their activities lasted until well into 1952. News concerning their prolonged, unequal struggle scarcely reached the Free West and if so but was seldom given any attention.

Lithuania disappeared behind the Iron Curtain and was not heard off for a very long time.

The madness and bloodshed of World War Two ended on May 8th, 1945 at 0800 hours. A point of time. In the Armies of the Western Allies officially known as "Zero Hour" and in German history as "Die Stunde Null". It came as a relief to all, the victors, the vanquished and the victims of it all.

THE DISPLACED PERSONS.
Destroyed Germany was a chaotic mess. Thousands from Western Euope having been deported by the Nazis for forced labour in their war industry were free again and wanted to go home and consequently hit the roads to do so. But these roads, as were the railways, were destroyed. But the refugees from the East did not fancy to return home. So they had to stay where they were and had to live in terrible conditions in former army and labour force camps whereas others, less lucky were put in partly destroyed old factories and other buildings. Almost everything was lacking including food and medical treatment. Life was hell. The future uncertain. The kids were suffering most of all. (Also see Chapter 1 of THE UNDAUNTED 1)
At first the population of most of the Displaced Persons' Camps was a mixture of several nationalities. Yet in almost every camp there were scouts and guides. They got together and, from scrap, they founded groups. Groups of mixed nationalities providing the kids with some activities that, for some hours, made them forget the circumstances they were living in.
These scouting and guiding activities did not go unnoticed and were detected by the many scouts and guides serving in the American, British, Canadian and Polish armies that were in occupation of West Germany, and were not only willing to lend a helping hand, but also reported their findings to their own National Headquarters who in turn informed the International Bureaus of both World Movements. The DP scouts and guides too made efforts to contact the IBs and many a leader that, in better times, had been working in the international field tried to reach his former friends. The occupation authorities saw the value of scouting and guiding in the camps and did everything to help.
When things settled down the occupation authorities tried to bring some order in the camps and as much as possible the various nationalities were concentrated in various "national camps". And that is how the first "national groups" were founded. West Germany had been divided in a US, a British and a French zone and travelling from the one to the other was hardly possible, permits to do so were hard to obtain. Also the railways were destroyed and there was hardly any other transport available. At first the postal services did not work either and so it was difficult to find out who had survived and where everybody was.
In the beginning of 1946 the Lithuanian Chief Guide Dr Ksavera Zilinkiene, who was in Stuttgart/South Germany, US Zone, with the assistance of the Allied administration, had restored the communications with most of the Lithuanian groups in West Germany but not yet with the ones in Austria, which also knew 4 occupation zones. ( It was known that the last Chief Scout Juczas Sarauskas had been murdered.) She called a meeting inviting the guide and scout leaders to come to Stuttgart. Which was easier said than done. Scouting-friendly occupation authorities often granted permits but even than, the travelling was difficult. Some had to stand for hours in slow moving, crowded trains, others had to sit on top of the railway carriages and all of them lacked food and drink. The more fortunate ones were given lifts in army trucks and were also fed.
During this meeting the LSS - uniting Lietuviu Skautu Sajunga, and Lietuvus Skaucia
Seserijas - was reactivated on April 28th, 1946. The World Bureaus were informed and spread their protecting wings. In 1947 the Displaced Persons Division of the Boy Scouts International Bureau was founded which assisted, supported and protected all DP scouts and gave them identity cards. The WAGGGS acted similarly. In a letter dated Schweinfurt DP- Camp, April 13th, 1948 and signed by Juoze Augustaityte - Vaiciuniene, Chief of Lithuanian Girl Guides, the Lietuvus Skaucia Seserijas Vadija informed WAGGGS quote :
"It was destined that in the American Zone there is living a greater part of the girl scouts than in the other zones. The Centre of the girl scouts is here too. Therefore the activity is better developed here. In the American zone there are 18 girl scout units. In the French zone there are 2 girl scout units and in the British Zone there are 6 girl scout units. Besides the isolated girl scout units there are some mixed units, that means boys and girls together, in all Zones. In Austria there is only one mixed unit."
"The structure of the organisation, the distribution of the places of the girl scouts and the addresses we will send to the World Bureau, although the dwellings are very inconstant; for camps have often to move from one place to another. "
"This year (1948) is one of jubilee in our scouting activity. There are thirty years since the foundation of the Lithuanian girl-boy scouts organisation. Therefore in this year we arrange exhibitions, meetings and camp courses to strengthen and deepen concourse of scouts works."

In September 1948 the DP Division of the Boy Scouts International Bureau had registered 2000 Lithuanian DP scouts spread over the US, the British and the French zones. In 1947, despite visa and money problems - which the UNRRA (6) and the DP Division BSIB solved - some were able to attend the 6th World Jamboree in Moisson/France.
To commemorate the 30th anniversary of Lithuanian Scouting and the country's Independence, due to travel permits between the US and the British Occupation Zones not easily obtainable , two STOVYKLA or National Camps had to be held, one in the British and one in the American Zone.

Meanwhile it had become quite clear that a return to the homeland was impossible and certainly not imminent. Several countries offered accommodation and a new future and so gradually the DPs of the various nationalities spread all over the world. (7) Wheresoever they went the Lithuanians, as all other DPs, still hoping that a return home would be possible in a not too far off future, stuck together as much as possible, keeping alive their culture and customs and their scouting and guiding. (7). Petras Jurgela, mentioned before as the Founder of the first Lithuanian troop ever, had also survived the war and was living in the USA where he founded a Lithuanian Group. He was also appointed as LSS-in-Exile Chief Scout. Upto well in the late eighties he performed this task. It is unknown whether he may have lived long enough to have seen the revival of th LSS in the old homeland.
Soon there were more than 2000 LSS scouts in the USA, 160 in Canada, 140 in Australia, 40 in Brazil. Girl Scouts, smaller in numbers, were also active in in these countries. Only 60 scouts and guides stayed behind in Germany for reasons explained in Chapter One of "THE UNDAUNTED" part 1, page 27.

At the 8th World Jamboree, Bad Ischl/Austria, 1951 21 LSS scouts were present. Eleven scouts, 2 scoutleaders and 8 rover scout represented LSS at the 9th World Jamboree/Indaba/RoverMoot, the Jubilee Jamboree of 1957 at Sutton Goldfield/England. In 1958 the Lithuanians celebrated three to them important events : LSS' 40the anniversary and rememberance of how 40 years earlier before their country had gained it independence and the 500th birthday of St Casimir, the Lithuanian's Patron Saint. . A STOVYKLA was held near Milford/Michican/USA and the participants were flown in from all over the world. Foreign guests participated, such as Hungarian, Latvian, Estonian, Ukrainian and Polish Exile Scouts, but also a large number of American and Canadian Scouts.

The 18th World Conference of Olivaris, near Lisbon/Portugal (20-24/09/1961) will always be considered by all Exile movements as a black day in World Scouting's history. . The offer of an associate membership stranded on the unwillingness of the Poles and consequently the Exiles could no longer consider themselves as being members of the World Movement unless they would join the NSOs of their new countries of residence. It can very well be understood that to all the Exile Scouts this was a hard blow. (7)

In Exile the LSS knew three sub-units viz Lietuviu Skautu Sajunga, Skautu Brolija, the Boys' Division, Lietuviu Skautu Sajunga, Skauciu Seserija, the Girls' Division, and
Lietuviu Skautu Sajunga, Akademinis Skauta Sajudis, the Students Division.

The Lithuanians belonged to the founder members of the CSAiE or "Council of Scout Associations in Exile". When in 1976, the Guides-in-Exile merged with the CSAiE, this institute was renamed AISGO or "Associated International Scout and Guide Organizations".
The LSS, originally named as participating, soon withdrew and cancelled its membership for reasons unknown and - regretfully - not traced.

Every 10 years, 1968, 1978 and 1988, far from the homeland, that some - having been born in Exile - had never even seen, the LSS scouts and guides celebrated their movement's and country's anniversaries. Excited they must have been during the 1988 STOVYKLA as they must have been aware that - thanks to Gorbatchev's Glassnot and Perestrojka - things were slowly but gradually changing in the Communist Block and that there was a glimmering of hope for better times.

ON THE ROAD TO FREEDOM.
Mikhail Gorbatchev's unexpected Perestrojka (Renewal) and Glassnost (Openness) in the USSR and its satallite countries created a atmosphere of tense hope and unrest. The authorities were showing a certain leniency and relaxation but the population remained careful. But at least there was a glimmering of hope. Perhaps things might change for the better at last.
There were changes in Poland. On 11/09/1989 Hungary opened the Iron Curtain and began removing it. Things were happening in the other satallite states. In the DDR (East Germany) , the loyalest of all Moscow satallites, there were anti communist and anti government demonstrations even on the 7th of October 1989 when the DDR was officially celebrating its 40th anniversary. A climax was that unforgettable evening of November 9th, 1989 when unexpectedly - and yet for the whole world to watch ont TV - the Berlin Wall came tumbling down and the people of East and West Berlin was able to meet, mix and celebrate after decades of separation. These things did not go unnoticed and greatly influenced other nations. Including Lithuania.

But whereas the satallite countries had some freedom of movement, the situation in Lithuania and the other Baltic States was different. They were no satallites, they were part of the Soviet Union, very much a one-party Soviet State, with governments that had to follow the strict orders that came from Moscow and without official opposition. But those opposing the system and desiring independence founded Sajudis, not a political party but a movement supporting certain political tendencies which had emerged gradually.

Some tried out to see how far one could go without being arrested and punished. In winter 1988/1989 in the Baltic Soviet States some dared to hoist their old national flags, the possession of which - let alone the displaying and flying of which - was strictly forbidden. Some flew over the cities and ..... nothing happened. So more flags were being raised.

23/08/1989. Fifty years earlier Nazi German and the Soviet Union had signed the treaty which led to the Baltic States losing their freedom and independence in 1940. The peoples of the three Baltic States, hand in hand, formed an unbroken human chain from the north of Estonia to the south of Lithuania, demanding the restoration of their liberty. This impressed. Thereafter the Lithuanians more and more stuck their necks out so much so that in December 1989 Gorbatchev came to visit and to appease. He promised a law permitting states belonging to the USSR to secede. But promises were not enough and the Lithuanian communist government was put under such a pressure that it had to condone free elections, meaning that contrary to the past, when there was only a choice out of communist candidates only, this time Sajudis candidates could be elected as well.

24/02/1990. Of the 90 seats available in Parliament 72 were going to Sajudis sponsered and supported candidates, 9 to a new Lithuanian national communist party that had broken away from the USSR CP, and 9 to the, very disappointed, official communist party.

10-11/03/1990. The new Parliament in office - with all votes in favour and 4 abstentions only - ratified again the Declaration of Independence of 1918. For the moment that was as far as they could go.

15/03/1990. Tension rose when the Moscow Congress of People's Deputies- with an
overwhelming 1463 votes and only 94 against - condemned Lithuanian's Declaration of Independence as being premature and illegal. An ultimatum was sent to Viljnoes/Vilnius demanding the Declaration's immediate cancelation. Newly elected President Landsbergis made a statement informing the world that the decission had been taken democraticly and that Lithuania did not feel obliged to conform with the decissions taken by a foreing power and that as such the USSR was now considered to be.

16/03/1990. The newly created Lithuanian Defence Corps comes out in the open and takes over the border control, hoisting the Lithuanian National Tricolour (Yellow Green Red).

24/03/1990. The Red Army demonstrated that it was still there, parading through the streets of Vilnius/Vilnjoes to impress and frighten the people.

26/03/1990. A crucial day. The Black Berets, the special forces of the USSR's Ministery of the Interior, struck. Important buildings including hospitals, but not the Parliament, were occupied. More Soviet pressure was added when Moscow declared an economic boycot. Oil, natural gas and food were no longer supplied. More than 300.000 demonstrated. The other Baltic States declared their solidarity and West European countries and the USA protested. In May 1990 there is hardly any petrol left, public transport came to a standstill and various industries were closed for lack of natural gas and oil. But Russia's president Boris Jeltsin stated that the new Russian Federation would cooperate with Lithuania.

29/06/1990 the Lithuanian government decided to put the Declaration of Independence in the deep-freeze. President Landsbergis accepted but did not agree. The very next day the USSR ended her boycot and oil, petrol, natural gas as well as food were being delivered once again.

A period of discussions and meetings followed but neither the USSR nor Lithuania were willing to give in.
The three Baltic States were very much afraid of the Red Army still encamped in their countries' garrisons and a further invasion of more Red Army units. Governments and peoples were preparing for underground resistance. But many were also leaving the country and went into Exile.

09/01/1991. The Black Berets, hit again surrounding but not yet entering main buildings. Unarmed Lithuanians stood between the soldiers and their targets. Gortbatchev, in a world wide statement, denied all responsability for this unwarrented action and also denied that he was behind or desired a possible communist coup d'etat in Lithuania.

10-14/01/1991. A dramatic situation developed. The Black Berets acted again. This time simultaniously in Estonia and Latvia. Opening fire whilst storming and taking several public buildings, the tv tower and tv studios, printing shops etc. 13 civilians were killed. The radio was still on the air when President Landsbergis said :" I promise that I'll remain loyal to my country and I think that we are prepared to die for Lithuania." Just before the radio station was forced to close down the following dramatic message was put on the air :
"This is Radio Lithuania. We inform you that the normal programs of Radio
Lithuania are being disrupted by brute military force. We will remain standfast. Our silence or strange voices using these wavelength do not mean that we are beaten. It is possible by sheer force to silence us, but that does not mean that they can force us to refrain from our struggle for Freedom and Independence."
Again Gorbatchev denied having given the orders and in Moscow thousands of Russian were demonstrating in favour of the Baltic States.

But meanwhile the Baltic communists founded National Rescue Committees, intending to remove the elected governments from office and to replace them in order to restore law, order and the communist regime. The United States and other countries added pressure on the USSR.

30/01/1991. It so seemed that Corbatchev got the overhand. Black Beret units, including 45 tanks, unexpectedly withdrew from the Lithuanian capital. The Kremlin informed Washington that it would be prepared to resume the negotiations with the Baltic States.

09/02/ 1991. A new referendum. 85% of the population voted. 90% of them in favour of total independence. The Central Soviet Government in Moscow declared the referendum to be totally illegal. The Red army began a 10 days' manoeuvres in the three Baltic States.

01/03/1991 Denmark was the first country to recognize Lithuanian independence.

31/03/1991. The Luthanian Parliament demanded the total withdrawal of all Black Beret units.

03/06/1991 Red Army units entered the country and occupied stratigic positions in Vilnjoes/Vilnius. But at midnight they suddenly departed again.

30/07/1991. In Moscow US President George Bush had talks with Gorbatchev.

19-22/08/1991. Communist Coup d'Etat in Moscow. Gorbatchev kidnapped. Boris Jeltsin organised resistance and wins. Gorbatchev reinstated.

24/08/1991. The Soviet Union disintegrates. Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia and some other states declare their full indepence.

26/08/1991. The Scandinavian and some West European countries recognized the Lithuania's independence.

27/08/1991. The foreign ministers of the European Union countries recognized the independence of the Baltic States. Their peoples celebrated the return of their liberty.

02/09/1991. The USA recognized the Baltic independence. Huge celebrations in the countrie concerned.

04/09/1991. In Moscow the Congress of Representatives of the USSR voted in favour of the independence of the Baltic States. More rejoicing. Free again after 51 years !!!

08/12/1991. After almost 70 years the Soviet Union disbanded and partly replaced by the Commonwealth of Independent States. A considerable number of the former Soviet States got their independence, broke away from Moscow and were free to go their own way.

* * * * *

SCOUTING's REVIVAL.
In the revival or reactivating of Lithuanian's Scouting/Guiding one can make a distintiction of three groups that had a great influence:

a) The Survivors.
Despite the well organized arrests and deportations in 1940/1941 and again in 1944/1953 when thousands of leading and opposing Lithuanians, including scout- and guideleaders, even scouts, guides, Rover Scouts and Rangers were removed, there were always a few who managed to escape the attention and remained free. There is no doubt that, particularly so after 1953, the former leaders and elder members sought contact again. They could meet socially, now and than, and some managed to congregate on Thinking Day and St George's Day and reafirmed their Promises. But they had to be very careful indeed as there were always traitors and informers around. And indeed, some were caught, arrested and send to camps.

Ofcourse normal scouting and guiding were impossible. Yet many a leader or scout and guide, used to play scout or guide games with their children and instructed them in the various scouting proficiencies. But bared from active scouting and guiding the idealistic and ceremonial aspects of the movements which before 1940 - all over the world were much stronger represented than presently - came forward more and more, became the centre part of their thinking and remembering and were fostered in nostalgia.
So to say the Lietuviu Skautu Sajunga members, still at liberty, put their active scouting in the deep freeze and since they were totally isolated from the outside world, they never were aware of the fact that after 1945 and in particular during the mid-sixties, scouting and guiding - movements (in the Fgree World) - had constantly adjusted to the demands and the possibilities of the times. Changes, some to the better, some less so. Consequently, when they revived scouting they reactivated it as they had known it before 1940 and that was a very long time ago (8).

b) The Exiles.
It cannot have but been that during their Exile they must also have undergone the modern influences, also in scouting, but on the whole particularly the original generation of Exiles remained loyal to their country and to their Scouting, its rules and traditions as they had known them in the Lietuviu Skautu Sajunga at home. They passed it on to the next generations. But new generations were born in Exile and it sometimes so happened that - though raised as Lithuanians - these kids were so much assimilated in the new countries that they felt more like citizens of those countries - whose nationalities they had - and some did not even speak, read or write the language of their grandparents or parents anymore. Some Exile groups had to use the language of residence and some of their magazines had to be printed in it. Yet even they were filled with feelings for the old country.

c)The Youngsters.
That is those generations born in Soviet Lithuania after 1945. Their official school education had been communist, but at home they were influenced differently. Ofcourse they had never known Lietuviu Skautu Sajunga but they may have heard stories and had some inkling of Scouting. They were the ones who, as soon as the Lithuanian National colours were hoisted again in winter 1988/1989, sent letters to the various National Headquarters of the WestEuropean and American Movements, asking for information on scouting and guiding. Some were simply addressed to: "HQ British Scout Movement, England" and were duely delivered at the right address. Some had somehow obtained the addresses of WOSM in Geneva and WAGGGS in London.

THE SURVIVORS AND THE EXILES.
Since 1953 correspondence between relatives at home and in Exile had been possible and no doubt the scouts and guides at home had been able to communicate with those in Exile. And this now blossomened. The Exiles were ever so pleased with the changes in the old home country. This was the moment they had been waiting for for so long and they were ready for it too. Ready to help and assist in the financial as well as the material way to revive the movements in the "old country". In mentality and opinions these two fractions were closest.

And so as early as in 1988 the first scouting groups were reactivated in Vilnjoes, Kaunus, Kapsukas and Klaipeda . On the 30th of April, 1989, a general meeting was held and LSS - Lietuviu Skautu Sajunga, banned 1940, was revived in accordance with the statutes and rules valid before 1940. A 22 member National Council was set op and a 7 member executive council appointed. As Chairman was chosen Feliksas Sakalys. Six districts were created. Shortly thereafter official recognition was granted by the Lithuanian Council of Ministers of the - still - Soviet Republic of Lithuania. The news was sent to the Free West and to the Lietuviu Skautu Sajung-in Exile. The latter reacted immediately. Since 1945 they had been waiting and preparing for this great moment and enormous financial and material assistence was given immediately and as early as possible the first Exile-leaders came to see what they could do further.

In 1990 Dr Jacques Moreillon, WOSM's Secretary General, had been to the Soviet Union and during his official meetings in Moscow had met Mr Evgueni D. Katulski, Vice President of the USSR State Committee for Labour and Social Affairs. The latter had not only authorized but also requested a WOSM visit to the Baltic States, which, at the time, Moscow still considered to be loyal Soviet republics.
As little was actually known -apart from some letters received saying that there was scouting again - the opportunity to investigate the situation on the spot was taken and so, just after the above mentioned, dramatic events of mid-January 1991, Yrjo Gorski, a Finnish member of the WOSM's European Region staff, paid a visit to the Baltic States and on the 26th and 27th of January met the leadership of the revived LSS - Lietuviu Skautu Sajunga . (WOSM Fact Finding Mission's Report dated 15/02/1990.) Hrefound that the LSS had things well in hand. Training courses for leaders and patrol leaders were held - led by some pre-1940 leaders, instuctors sent by the LSS-in-Exile, the Swedish and the Danish movements. Systematic support was given to all new groups. Membership was said to be nearly 1000. A magazine "SKAUTU AIDAS" with a circulation of 20.000 copies was published. The large circulation was explained by the fact that it was also used as propaganda material aimed at non-Scouts. LSS had been approached by the strict Roman Catholic - non-WOSM - organisation "Scouts d'Europe" but LSS prefered to join WOSM instead of a splinter organization. There were links with Caritas, (a Roman catholic charitable organization) and the social organization Sajudis.

WAGGGS World Bureau Circular, the Central and Eastern Europe Report - covering October 1990 - May 1991 - revealed that WAGGGS too had restored contact with the Lietuviu Skautu Sajunga, Skauciu Seserija. (Girls' Division.) which for the time being for financial, material and logistic reasons cooperated with the boys but - as soon circumstances would permit - hoped to operate independently.
WAGGGS had also discovered a second girl scouts movement, set up by youngsters who had never had any ties with pre-1940 LSS, but had based their organisation solely on materials received in answer to their letters written to various foreing guide movements.

In September 1991 (see above) Lithuania at long last was a free and independent country again and the scouts and guides participated in all the festivities.

According to WOSM Situation Report no 6 (September 1991) Yrj" Gorski had been in
Lithunania again in September. The LSS had now 1400 members. Lithuanian scouts had participated in National Camps in Estonian and Latvia but had also been visiting Denmark, France and Malta. Two leaders had been to WOSM Geneva for an instroduction meeting, one attended the International Commissioners' Forum in Greece and one scout - thanks to a special Western Fund - had been able to go the the 17th World Jamboree 1991 at Mount Sorak National Park in South Korea.

During a special WOSM meeting at Geneva (03-04/10/1991) it was disclosed that a number of non-WOSM-recognized movements, such as Federation des Scouts d'Europe, FEE-France and ZHR-Poland were promoting their own form of Scouting in Russia and Lithuania. Their influence was said to be very limited though the ZHR had some success amongst the Polish minority in and around Vilnjoes/Vilnus in particular.

LSS was invited to send a delegation to the World Bureau and the European Regional Office in Geneva and discussions with the 3 representatives were held on December 12 and 14th, 1991. Several items were discussed, e.g. the policy of and the procedure for recognition as a WOSM member.

A REGRETFUL DEVELOPMENT.
Inger Christensen, WAGGGS' Danish Link Member, made an official trip to Lithuania in March 1992. She found that the LSS was based on its original pre-1940 programme and the programme of the groups in Exile. She also had a meeting with the popular President Landsbergis who expressed great interest in the developments and his hope that Lithuanian's scouts and guides would soon be re-admitted to the World Movements.

But meanwhile there had been a regrettable development in the LSS. As mentioned earlier there were the Survivors who, with the full assistance of the Exiles had set LSS upon its feet again and had done a wonderful job. They cannot be blamed for having recreated LSS as they had known it before 1940 and had kept it in their hearts during the dark and wasted years 1940-1988. So the reactivated movement was very much similar to the old LSS. Repeat: for which no one can be blamed, they all did their best.

Baden-Powell intended Scouting to be a Movement with the emphasis on MOVE. And
Scouting had always been on the move and had always adjusted to all the possibilities, progress, technical developments and even fashion were offering. This flexibility was one of the reasons why scouting managed to remain in existence, whereas other youth movements - political or non political and often copies of scouting - which had come to being later, disappeared soon after a longer or shorter period of initital success.

During the Cold War so much had changed in the Free West and also in the scout and guide movements belonging to that part of the world. It is true some changes were very good, others might perhaps not have happened, but scouting and guiding were still going strong. Having lived behind the Iron Curtain for so long and having been cut off from the interntional scouting and guiding world for so long, these changes had not come to the attention of the Survivors who expectded that Scouting and Guiding .1989 wopuld still be the same as in 1940. But as soon as LSS had been reactivited and the national borders been opened, its younger members and its young leaders got into contact with not only the LSS- in-Exile but also with the Western Movements. They met them in camps in their own Lithuania or in foreign countries and they recognized that LSS' scouting was slightly different, less advanced. They opted for the more relaxed approach of western scouting as they saw it and they demanded more say and democracy in the LSS organization. In it they were supported by some of the younger Exiles and some of the instructors that the LSS-in- Exile sent from other countries. Regretfully a generation gap came to being and it came to a serious conflict, mainly between the elderly pre-1940 scoutleaders (also named Former Scouts) and the younger ones. The older ones stuck to their old scouting which the younger ones considered as being old-fashioned, undemocratic and stagnant. Efforts to make the two points of view meet, including Danish intervention, failed. Regrettably in LSS there were two fractions opposing each other.

Whilst the internal negotiations went on the LSS' leadership, ignoring the problem and not informing WOSM, applied for WOSM recognition. In accordance with the requirements of the World Constitution the World Scout Committee considered the application and the LSS' constitution and recommended that LSS be accepted. As usual the World Bureau sent to all recognized movements its Circular Letter (no 26/1992, dated 15/10/1992), informing them and asking them whether they agreed or objected. But apparently WOSM was not aware of the fact that there were now two Lithuanian movements, not including the Polish Zemaitijos Skautu Organizacija - ZSO which had its members in the Polish minority living in Luthiania.

It was the Faellesradet for Danmarks Drengespejdere (The Danish Scout Council) which alarmed the World Bureau with its letter of December 21st, 1992 saying :
"The Danish Scout Council has considered the recommendation that Lietuvos
Skautu Sajunga be accepted as member organization of the World Organization.
The Danish Scout Associations have taken a great interest in the Baltic countries and especially in Lithuania. We have a link person as arranged by the European Scout Committee, and one of the associations - KFUM Spejderne i Danmark - (9) has, following an appeal from Dominique Benard (10), assisted the Scout in Lithuania in preparing their national camp next year.
But we are aware of the fact that there are now two associations in Lithuania open to boys and girls and that only one of them is applying for membership. We are also aware that the management and planning seminar run by the European Scout Office has not taken place and that an evaluation tour by Dominque Bnard (ESO) and Rosie Dunn (WAGGGS) is planned for February next year.(11)
The Danish Scout Council is therefore opposing the acceptence of the application from Lietuvos Skautu Sajunga at this stage. We recommend that the present situation with the two Scout Associations in Lithuania be investigated further in order to find a way of uniting the two Associations before an application for membership is accepted. "

So despite all the hard work done and all the achievements by many, everybody was back at square one. Circular 26/1992 was withdrawn and the World Bureau as well as the European Regional Office opened its investigations. It was detected that even the younger ones who had stayed put in Lietuviu Skautu Sajunga disagreed with the old generation of survivors. From 1992 to 1995 attempts were made to bring all parties back together and to ensure theintroduction of a democratic decision-making process with more simplified structures. But as it was there were no results. The split was permanent. A regrettable and sad situation for all. .

In spring 1995 a meeting was held, called by a majority of young leaders. They were backedby key members of the LSS' National Council and progressive members of the LSS-in-Exile. Leaders of other organizations were also invited. Regretting that no progress had been made it was decided to found a new movement, modern style and structure, named Lietuvos Skautija. (Lithuanian Scouting) The organisation was duly registered by the Ministry of Justice in September 1995.

The next step was that Lietuvos Skautija called a General Assembly in Kaunas from November 23-24th, 1996. It was open to all active leaders registered by one of the - now several - scout associations existing in the country. So not only members of the Lietuvos Skautija, but also the Lietuviu Skautu Sajunga, the independent Sea Scout Association and the Lietuvos Lenku Skautu Sajunga (the Polish Scout Asociation in Lithuania) attended. All these representatives voted for unity and were involved in the drafting of a new constitution, conformi to WOSM's requirements. It was confirmed by this General Assembly that the name of the organizations would henceforth be: Lietuvos Skautija.

Lietuvos Skautija thereupon applied for membership of the World Organization. In accord- ance with the Constitution of the World Organization the World Scout Committee considered the application at its meeting of November 9th and 10th, 1996 and recommended that it be accepted.
And so the World Bureau was able to issue Circular no 06/97, dated April 24th, 1997, addressed to all recognized movements, informing them that, unless the recommendation was opposed, the Lietuvos Skautija would be declared to be the National Scout Organization of the Republic of Lithuania and a Member of the World Organization of the Scout Movement as from July 25th, 1997.

This time no one objected and so, after 57 years the Lithuania Scouts were back home at last.
Piet J. Kroonenberg, Amsterdam, February, 2000.

FOOTNOTES.

1) For further details see THE UNDAUNTED, part one, the Polish Chapter, page 169.

2) A Republic's President being Chief Scout was exceptional. Many heads of state - e.g. the Presidents of the United States - and members of many Royal Families, used to be Patrons and Protectors of Scouting and Guiding or still act as such.
But some actually also did take an active part in Scouting and Guiding, working their way up from the bottom, that is beginning as cub scouts or brownies.
SWEDEN.
In the thirties and forties Gustaf Adolf, Crown Prince of Sweden, was very popular in national and international scouting. He worked his way up. Was a scout, a scoutleader running his own troop and got his wood badges. At Gilwell near London. When the Swedish Scout Council was formed he was it very first President. He was
never happier than when under canvas with the scouts and he never missed opportunity of joining the scouts in camp or at Jamborees. He was leader of the Swedish contingent to the 5th Jamboree at Vogelenzang/The Netherlands in 1937 and to the World Rover Moot in Scotland in 1939. He was very much looking forward to the 6th World Jamboree, Moisson/France, 1947 and was involved in its preprarations when, on his way to a scouting meet in London, he met a tragic death on January 26th, 1947. He travelled from Stockholm to London in a Dutch KLM plane. There was a short stop over in Copenhagen. During take off the planes crashed and all occupants were killed. Gustaf Adolf's death came as a great shock to the Scouting world, because he was very popular indeed.
In May 1937, at the unanimous request of the members of the International (now World) Committee, he accepted the position of its first Honorary President. A task which, though honorary, he took very seriously indeed, seeing to it that he was present at every meeting, helping with his counsel and advice. When Baden-Powell, the Founder and Chief Scout of the World, had passed on in 1941, some members of the International Committee thought that there ought to be a second Chief Scout of the World and Gustaf Adolf was sounded out about his taking this title. He refused saying that he could never stand in B-P's shoes and that it would be better if there would not be a second Chief Scout of the World.
His son, the present King Carl XVI Gustaf, had been born in 1946, never to really know his father. He also worked his way up through the ranks, as had his father. Presently he is the very popular Honorary President of the World Scout Foundation. It may be Honorary but it means that he is working hard for it, collecting funds for scouting as do all the members of the Baden-Powell Fellowship. At all important meetings and camps he is present, sleeps in tents and wears uniform.

Folke Count Bernadotte of Wisborg (02/01/1895-17/09/1948), also belonging to the Swedish Raoyal Family was another one who played an important role in Swedish and international Scouting He was involved in Scouting from its introduction to Sweden. He was also very active in the Swedish and International Red Cross and got wellknown in spring 1945 during the final collapse of Nazi Germany. Whereas the Nazis, in order to cover up their war crimes, intended to kill all concentration camp inmates, he went to Germany and negotiated the release of - at firs - the Norwegian and Danish captives, and later those of other nationalities. White painted Swedish Red Cross coaches carried them via occupied Denmark to Sweden. Heinrich Himmler, the Reichsfuhrer SS, that is the man in charge of the SS, wanting to save his skin, negotiated with him and even, via him, tried to obtain a separate peace with the Western Allies. Later, during the troubles in Palestine just before the founding of the State of Israel , the United Nations asked the Count to negotiate between the Arabs and the Jews. During his work he was assassinated in Jeruzalem by a Jewish terrorist and died instantly on 17/09/1948. A second serious loss to the Swedish and World Movements in so short a time.
DENMARK.
Queen Ingrid of Denmark has been a brownie and guide and like her mother, former Queen, later Princess Benedikte, is still very much involved in the WAGGGS and the Olave Baden-Powell Society.
BELGIUM.
The former King of Belgium, Bauduin/Boudewijn, was a scout and so was his brother, the present King of the Belgians, Albert II.
GREAT BRITAIN.
Queen Elizabeth II and her sister Princess Margeret have been brownies and guides and both their father King George VI and mother Queen Elizabeth (the popular Queen-Mum) were involved. The Duke of Kent is President of the Scout Association and the previous Princess Royal was active in the Guide Movement.
ROMANIA.
King Carol II (1930-1940) when still Crown Prince, was Chief Scout. When he mounted the throne he handed this post to his son Michael, who had been active in scouting from an early age. The latter was to be the Romanian contingent leader to the 5th World Jamboree, 1937 at Vogelenzang in the Netherlands. But just before the departure, King Carol II - under pressure of nationalists and the fascist Iron Guard - was forced to accept the creation of a fascistoide National Youth Movement and to order the disbandment of the Romanian Scout Movement.
THE NETHERLANDS.
Prince Hendrik (19/04/187 - 03/07/1934) Queen Wilhelmina's spouse, right from the beginning took a great interest in Dutch scouting which came to being in 1910 when two movements were founded. One which stuck to B-P and one with nationalistic tendencies. In 1915 the prince was instrument in the merger of the two into one National Scout Organization which fully accepted Baden-Powell's rules and policies. He was its first Royal Commissioner and as such very active until his death.
In 1937 he was succeeded as such by Prince Bernhard who had married the Crown Princess Juliana. He was Royal Commissioner of the "open" and the RC movements and chaired the National Scout Council until 1973. Queen Juliana, who had never been a guide but under the influence of her father always had an interest, joined the Dutch guide movement after World War II. Her guiding name was
MOVAVEDO = MOeder - mother, VAn = of, VEle - many, DOchters = Daughters. Juliana, since her abdication a Princess again, and her husband Prince Bernhard are two of the three Dutch members of the Baden-Powell Fellowship. (The third one being Frits Philips of the famous, world wide Philips works.)
Present Queen Beatrix and her sister Irene have been brownies and guides in a local guide company.
Queen Beatrix' husband, Prince Claus, is the Patron of Scouting Nederland.

3) See THE UNDAUNTED, part one, Hungarian Chapter, pages 249/250.

4) The population at the time being about 2,5 millions,( 80% Lithuanians, 9,5% Russians and 8% Poles) . these figures are not bad. When banned in 1940 there were more than 10.000 scouts and guides. t

5) The Stone of Palange.
Dr Jacques Moreillon, the WOSM Secretary General, paid an official visit to the Baltic States and was the guest of the Lithuanians from June 26th until 28th, 1999. From his report, quote :
"On the Sunday we went to Klaipeda to meet the local governor and to proceed to Palanga, where B-P had signed, in 1933, a huge 4 to 5 tons stone with his initials, together with those of the great Lithuanian president Antanas Smetona. In 1939, the huge rock had been hidden ( in a pond !) from the occupying Soviets and was taken out by those who had hidden it when the country regained its independence in the early nineties ! I was asked to "ensure continuity by signing another stone" which demonstrated - if at all necessary - that Lithuanians have a strong sense of history and identity!" "I regretted that Piet Kroonenberg could not be with us."

6) UNRRA - United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration. It took over the running of the Displaced Persons Camps from the military.

7) See THE UNDAUNTED, part One, pages 50-55, and 58-61 for further detailed information.

8) See also THE UNDAUNTED, part One, the Hungarian Chapter, page 291 for similar experiences in Hungary.

9) KFUM the name used in the Scandinavian countries for the YMCA (Young Men Christian Association) which, as the Young Women Christian Association, always played an important part in Scandinavian Scouting and Guiding. As for Europe YMCA is having groups in Belarus, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Faroe Islands, Finland, France, Germany, Great Britain, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway. Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine. In most countries these YMCA groups belong to the NSOs. In some of the East and Central European countries they may not yet do so but the overallbody, the European Alliance of YMCAs (EAY) is seeing to it that all of its groups will soon belong to WOSM/WAGGGS recognized national organizations.

10) From 1975 - 1990 British Patric A. McLaughlin ran the WOSM European Regional Office from Geneva. He had to deal with 14 countries in which scouting was active. Due to Scouting's revival in East and Central Europe, his successor Dominique Benard, (French) who stayed in office until 2000, had a constantly increassing number on his hands.

11) It was always customary to have these first before an application for membership could be sent to the World Bureau. For some unknown reason in this case it did not happen apparently